Governor-General of India, Governor-General of Bengal & Viceroy & Important Events

Governor-General of Bengal

YearGovernors-General of BengalMajor Reforms & Events
1772-1785Warren HastingsFirst Governor of Bengal
End to the dual system of administration
Regulating Act of 1773
Supreme court at Calcutta
Asiatic Society of Bengal
First Anglo-Maratha War and Treaty of Salbai
First English translation of Bhagavad Gita
Pitt’s India Act-1784
1786-1793Lord CornwallisEstablishment of Appellate courts and lower grade courts
Establishment of Sanskrit college
Third Anglo-Mysore War and Treaty of Seringapatam
Introduction of Permanent Settlement and civil services
1793-1798Sir John Shore Charter act of 1793
Policy of Non-intervention
Battle of Kharda
1798-1805Lord Wellesley Introduction of Subsidiary Alliance System
Fourth Anglo- Mysore war and the Treaty of Bassein
Second Anglo – Maratha war
Establishment of Madras presidency
Establishing Fort William College at Calcutta
1805-1807Sir George BarlowThe Acting Governor-General of India until the arrival of Lord Minto,
Diminished the area of British territory because of his passion for economy and retrenchment,
The Mutiny of Vellore took place in 1806
1807-1813Lord Minto IConcluded the treaty of Amritsar with Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1809,
Introduced the Charter Act of 1813
1813-1823Lord Hastings The policy of Non-intervention came to an end
third Anglo-Maratha war
Abolition of Peshwaship
Establishment of the Ryotwari System in Madras (By Thomas Munroe) and Bombay
Mahalwari system in north-western Provinces and Bombay
1823-1828 Lord Amherst The annexation of Assam leading to the first Burmese war of 1824,
The mutiny of Barrackpore in 1824

Governors-Generals of India

YearGovernors-General of IndiaMajor Reforms
1828-1835Lord William BentinckFirst Governor-General of India (Charter Act of 1833 made Governor-General of Bengal as Governor-General of India.)
Abolition of Sati
Suppression of Thugi, infanticide and child sacrifices.
English Education Act of 1835
Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata 
1835-1836Lord Charles Metcalfe‘Liberator of the Indian press
detached all restraints on an open press
1836-1842Lord AucklandDedicated himself to the improvement of native schools and the expansion of the commercial industry of IndiaThe first Anglo-Afghan war 
1842-1844Lord EllenboroughSindh was annexed
1844-1848Lord Hardinge IFirst Anglo Sikh War (1845-46)
Lord Dalhousie (Governors-General of India)introduced ‘Doctrine of Lapse‘
Doctrine of Good
Charles Wood Dispatch
Post Office Act, 1854
1st Railway line connecting Bombay and Thane
Established engineering college in Roorkee
Second Anglo-Sikh War 
First telegraph line 
Establishment of the Public Works Department 
Abolition of titles and pensions.
Started Competitive  examination for Indian Civil Services
Widow Remarriage Act
1856-1857Lord CanningThree universities at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay in 1857 were established
Revolt of 1857 took place

Note – Post-1857 Revolt, Governor-General of India was made Viceroy of British India and Canning became the first Viceroy of India/British India.

Viceroys in India from 1858 to 1947

Lord Canning1858-1862Abolished doctrine of lapse
Lord Elgin1862 – 1863Wahabi Movement
Lord Lawrence1864 – 1869Establishment of High court in Calcutta, Madras during his reign.
Anglo-Bhutanese war
Lord Mayo1869 – 1872Financial Distribution between centre and state introduced for the first time
First Census in 1872
Mayo College for the royal elite was set up
Lord Mayo was the only Governor-General who was killed in India. He was killed by Sher Ali Afridi in Port Blair
Establishment of Statistical Survey of India
Lord Northbrook1872 – 1876Civil Marriage and Arya Samaj marriage introduced
Universal Marriage Act introduced in 1872
Intercaste Marriage allowed
Kuka Movement in Punjab
Lord Lytton1876 – 1880Vernacular Press Act, 1878
Arms Act, 1878
Nationalist view – Due to High rate of taxation purchasing power had reduced.
Government view – Drought is natural phenomena due to which people became poor
Ignored severe famine and organized durbar. Proclaimed Queen Victoria “The Empress of India”
Abolished tax on cotton for British traders
Maximum age to take up civil services exam lowered from 21 to 19
Lord Ripon1880 – 1884Was the most loved Governor-General
Repealed the controversial Arms and Vernacular press act
Set up Local self-governments – Panchayats and Municipal Boards due to which he was known as Father of Self Government
2 new universities opened – Punjab University 1884, Allahabad University 1887
Illbert Bill – Indian judge cannot try English Judge
Appointment of Hunter Commission
Lord Dufferin1884 – 1888III Anglo-­‐Burmese war (1885-­‐1886)
Indian National Congress was founded in 1885
Lord Lansdowne1888 – 1894Indian Councils Act, 1892 (Indirect election was introduced for the first time)
Factory Act, 1891
Lord Elgin II1894 – 1899First British Officer called Rands was killed.
He was killed by Chapekar (Ramkrishna & Damodar) Brothers. This was the first political murder.
Lord Curzon1899 – 1905Indian Universities act – to control Indian Universities
Raleigh Commission
Partition of Bengal
Curzon-Kitchener controversy
Lord Minto II1905 – 1910Morley – Minto reforms
Lord Hardinge II1910 – 1916Mesopotamian Campaign
Transfer of Capital from Calcutta to Delhi
Hindu Mahasabha was established by Madan Mohan Malaviya
Lord Chelmsford1916 – 1921Home Rule League Movements
Rowlatt Act was passed
Montague – Chelmsford reform was passed
Lord Reading1921 – 1926Swaraj Party was formed
Chauri – Chaura incident took place
Lord Irwin1926 – 1931Launch of civil disobedience movement and Dandi march
First round table conference was held
Lord Willingdon1931 – 1936Second & Third Round Table Conference
Poona pact was signed
Communal award was started
Lord Linlithgow1936 – 1944Cripps Mission
Quit India movement
Lord Wavell1944 – 1947CR Formula 1944
Launch of Direct Action day
Wavell Plan & Shimla conference
Lord Mountbatten1947-48June 3rd Plan
Last Viceroy and First Governor-General of free India
  • The only Indian Governor-General of India who was CR Gopalachari. India was made a republic in 1950. He was the last governor-general of India, following which the post was abolished.

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