The Coastal Plains and the Island
The expansion of the coastal plains has occurred between the peninsular mountain ranges and the sea coasts of India. The sedimentation by both sea and rivers has contributed in the formation of these plains. The coastal plain can be divided into two parts.
i. The Western Coastal Plain ii. The Eastern Coastal Plain
(i) The Western Coastal Plain
This plain extends from Surat to Kanyakumari, It cay again be divided into four parts:
(a) The Gujarat plain — coastal area of Gujarat.
(b) The Konkan plain — between Daman and Goa.
(c) The Kannad plain — between Goa and Mangalore.
(d) The Malabar plain — between Mangalore and Kanyakumari.
(ii) The Eastern Coastal Plain
The plain extends between the Eastern Ghats and the sea coast from subranarekha river to Kanyakumari. The eastern coastal plain is wider than the western coastal plain. The main reason of it is the formation of delta by rivers like the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri. In the coastal plain, there is the Kolleru lake (Andhra Pradash) in the delta region of the Godavari and the Krishna. It is a deltaic lake. There are two more important lakes on the eastern coast of India-the Chilika lake (in Odisha) and the Pulicat Lake (on the border of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu). Both are the examples of lagoon. The Chilika Lake is largest salt water lake and lagooon lake in India.
The Island Groups
(i) The Andaman and Nicobar Islands—
The Andaman and Nicobar islands are originally the protruded parts of the oceanic fold mountains formed during the Tertiary epoch. Here, there are about 350 islands in which only 38 are inhabited.
The territory’s capital is the city of Port Blair. The total land area of the islands is approximately 8,249 km2 (3,185 sq mi). The territory is divided into three districts: the Nicobar District with Car Nicobar as its capital, the South Andaman district with Port Blair as its capital and the North and Middle Andaman district with Mayabunder as its capital.
It comprises two island groups, the Andaman Islands (partly) and the Nicobar Islands, separated by the 150 km wide Ten Degree Channel (on the 10°N parallel), with the Andaman islands to the north of this latitude, and the Nicobar islands to the south (or by 179 km).
The highest peak of the Andaman and Nicobar islands is Saddle Peak’ (North Andaman, 738 m) followed by ‘Mt. Thullier” (Great Andaman, 642 m).
The Barren Island, an island of this archipelago, is the only active volcano in India.
‘The Indira Point’ is the southernmost point of India is situated in Great Nicobar.
‘The Duncan Pass’ is between South Andaman and Little Andaman.
(ii) The Lakshadweep islands—
The Lakshadweep islands are situated in the Arabian Sea at a distance of 220-240 km from the western coast of the Indian mainland. There are 36 islands in this archipelago (total area = 32 sq km) in which here 10 are inhabited. Most of the islands are plain. The height of the islands is nowhere more than 2 m. These islands have been formed by the deposition of corals on the Chagos-Lakshadweep Under ridge.
Kavaratti is the capital of Lakshadweep. Agatti is the only island having an airport. Andrott is the largest island (4.9 sq km) of Lakshadweep archipelago. Minicoy is the second largest (4.8 sq km) and Southermost island of this archipelago. Coconut is the only agricultural product and fishinig is the main occupation here.