Indian Geography – General Introduction
India – Location
India is in Southern Asia. India is located latitudinally in Northern Hemisphere, and longitudinally in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Latitudinally : 6°4′ and 37°6′ N (mainland 8°4′ and 37°6′ N)
Longitudinally : 68°7′ and 97°25′ E.
From Gujarat (westernmost) to Arunachal Pradesh (easternmost), there is about 30° difference; hence, because of this difference, there is a time difference of two hours between Gujarat and Arunachal Pradesh. The sun rises in Arunachal Pradesh about two hours earlier as compared to
Jaisalmer in Rajasthan
The Tropic of Cancer 23°30′ N divides India into almost two halves. The Indian peninsula tapers southwards resulting in the division of the Indian Ocean into two water bodies. They are the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.
India – Size
India is the 7th largest country in the world. ( Russia, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, Australia, India, Argentina…)
India spreads over an area of about 3.28 million sq. km. (32,87,263 sq. km.) which is 2.42% of World’s area. It lies on the Indian Plate, which is the northern part of the Indo-Australian Plate. The Indian subcontinent is surrounded by three different water bodies. It is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal to the east, the Indian Ocean to the south and the Arabian Sea to the west. There is a Himalayan mountain range which is spread across most of northern India.
It has the second-largest population in the world which is 17.5% of World’s population. (2011 census). Total Villages in India are 6,40,930. (approx, 2011)
Northernmost point : Indira Col in Jammu and Kashmir.
Southernmost point : Indian mainland point is Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu. Southernmost point of India is the Indira Point which is the southernmost point of Great Nicobar Island of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. The Indira Point was previously known as the Pygmalion Point or the Parson Point. (876 km from Equator)
Easternmost point : Walang, Arunachal Pradesh
Westernmost point : Sarcreek, Gujrat
India has a total land boundary of about 15,200 km. India’s total length of coastline is 6,100 km of its mainland and after including Andaman and Nicobar, and Lakshadweep islands, it is 7,516.6 km.
North to South extremity is 3,214 km and that from east to west is only 2,933 km.
India’s territorial limit further extends towards the sea up to 12 nautical miles (i.e. about 21.9 km) from the coast. India has absolute rights to use this area.
The area ahead of the territorial sea frontier and 24 nautical miles from the main coastline is known as the contiguous zone. In this area, India has the fiscal rights, excise duty rights, rights related to pollution control and right to implement immigration laws.
The nautical region ahead of the contiguous zone which is up to 200 nautical miles from the main coastline is known as the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). In this region India has rights to survey, exploitation, conservation and research on mineral resources, marine life etc.
Indian Standard Meridian
82°30’E Meridian crossing through the Mirzapur city of Uttar Pradesh is taken as India’s Standard Meridian. Indian Standard Time is ahead of Greenwich (0° or Prime Meridian) Mean Time by 5 hours and 30 minutes.
Tropic of cancer (23°30’N) passes through Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura, and Mizoram. (8 States)
India & Neighbors
India has total 28 States, 8 Union Territories including National Capital Territory Delhi.
India shares its international boundaries with Afghanistan and Pakistan in the North-West; China, Tibet (China), Nepal, and Bhutan in the North and North-East; and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the East. (7 Countries).
(Durand Line — the border line between India and Afghanistan, presently separates PoK and Afghanistan This line was decided by Sir Henry Mortimer Durand in 1896; Radcliffe Line — the border line between India and Pakistan, and India and Bangladesh by Sir Cyril Radcliffe in 1947; McMohan line — the border line between India and China. This line was decided by Sir Henry McMahon in 1914.)
Island countries Sri Lanka and Maldives are India’s neighbors across the sea. India and Sri Lanka are separated by a thin water body called the Palk Strait.
17 states of India have common land borders with neighboring countries.