Conjunctions: English Grammar Rules

Conjunctions: English Grammar Rules

Conjunctions are the connecting words in a sentence. A conjunction is a word or phrase that connects two or more words, phrases, sentences, or clauses. In many competitive exams, a question on the application of conjunction is one of the most commonly asked in the English portion. Conjunction is an important aspect of English language training for competitive exams such as SSC, Railway, Banking, and others. We’ll go through the many sorts of conjunctions and their regulations in this section.

♦Definition

Some words are satisfied spending an evening at home, alone, eating ice-cream right out of the box, watching Seinfeld re-runs on TV, or reading a good book. Others aren’t happy unless they’re out on the town, mixing it up with other words; they’re joiners and they just can’t help themselves. A conjunction is a joiner, a word that connects (conjoins) parts of a sentence.

समुच्चयबोधक Conjunction यह वह शब्द है जो बीच में आकर दो शब्दों या वाक्यों को जोड़ते हैं उसे Conjuction समुच्चयबोधक या संयोजक कहते हैं। जैस; और, या, किन्तु, परन्तु, इसलिए आदि।

Kind of Conjunctions

  • Coordinating Conjunctions
  • Subordinating Conjunctions
  • Correlative Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions (समन्वय संयोजक)

The simple, little conjunctions are called coordinating conjunctions (you can click on the words to see specific descriptions of each one):- For, And, Neither, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So, As.

दो समान स्तर या स्वतंत्र के दो वाक्यों को जोड़ने वाले समुच्चयबोधक शब्द को समन्वय संयोजक Co ordinating conjunction कहते हैं।

समन्वय संयोजन के शब्द हैं जैसे के लिए, और, न, लेकिन, या, फिर भी, इसलिए, जैसा कि [ For, And, Neither, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So, As. ]

Example

AND

अगर “AND” से  पहले  जो भी Degree हो तो बाद में भी वही होता हैं

Possitive Degree + AND + Possitive Degree

Comparative Degree + AND     + Comparative Degree

Example: Several guests notice/ Mr. sharma collapsing (V5) in his / chair and Gasping (V5) for breath.

मैं बाजार में खरीदारी करूँगा।    I will shop in the market.

मैं बाजार में बर्गर खाऊंगा।   I will eat burger in the market

मैं बाजार में खरीदारी करूँगा और बर्गर खाऊंगा।   I will shop and eat burger in the market.

But

मुझे घूमना पसंद है लेकिन बस से घूमना करना पसंद नहीं है।

I like travelling but don’t like to travel by bus.

Or

क्या आप चाय लेंगे या कॉफी ?

Will you take tea or coffee ?

Yet

कोई भी अभी तक आपको नहीं जानता है।

No one knows you yet.

As

जैसा कि तुम अच्छी तरह से जानते हैं, यह अच्छा नहीं है।

As you know well, it is not good.

Subordinating conjunctions (गौण संयोजक)

A Subordinating Conjunction (sometimes called a dependent word or subordinator) comes at the beginning of a Subordinate (or Dependent) Clause and establishes the relationship between the dependent clause and the rest of the sentence. It also turns the clause into something that depends on the rest of the sentence for its meaning.

After, as far as, as if, as long as, as soon as, because, before, even if, every time, if, since, through, so that, than, unless, until, when, whenever, wherever while.

इस प्रकार के संयोजक में इसमें एक स्वतंत्र वाक्य और एक वाक्यांश को जोड़ते है उन्हें हम गौण संयोजक Subordinating conjunctions कहते हैं।

सहसंबंधित संयोजक के शब्द हैं जैसे After, as far as, as if, as long as, as soon as, because, before, even if, every time, if, since, through, so that, than, unless, until, when, whenever, wherever while.

Example

If

If you want to go there you can go. अगर आप वहां जाना चाहते हैं तो आप जा सकते हैं

When

When i went there, i saw a beautiful flower. जब मैं वहां गया तो मैंने एक सुंदर फूल देखा।

Since

Since i am here, let me help you. चूंकि मैं यहाँ हूँ, मुझे आपकी सहायता करने दो।

After

He arrived after the bell rang. वह घंटी बजने के बाद पहुंचा।

Before

Come home before dark. अंधेरे होने से पहले घर आओ।

Because

Because rajesh has failed, he is very upset. क्योंकि राजेश विफल हो गया है, वह बहुत परेशान है।

Unless

Unless it rains, i will not go. जब तक कि बारिश न हो, मैं नहीं जाऊँगा

Through

The train passes through five tunnels. रेलगाड़ी पांच सुरंगों में से निकलती है।

As far as

As far as i know, he is not good. जहां तक मुझे पता है, वह अच्छा नहीं है।

wherever

You have the freedom to travel wherever you like. आप जहां भी चाहें वहां आपको यात्रा करने की स्वतंत्रता है।

Correlative Conjunctions (सहसंबंधित संयोजक)

Some conjunctions combine with other words to form what are called correlative conjunctions. They always travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal. [ Either … or, Not only…but also, Neither…nor, As much…as, No sooner…than, Rather…than. ]

दो शब्दों के ऐसे जोड़े जो वाक्यों को जोड़ने के लिए होते हैं, वाक्य का महत्व सामान ही होता है, सहसंबंधित संयोजक Correlative conjunctions कहलाता है।

सहसंबंधित संयोजक के शब्द हैं जैसे या तो, यह या वह, केवल इतना ही नहीं, बल्कि यह भी, ना तो ये न ही ये, जितना, जैसे ही, बजाय या बल्कि। [ Either … or, Not only…but also, Neither…nor, As much…as, No sooner…than, Rather…than. ]

Example

Either….. or

 Either gopal or pawan is in that room. उस कमरे में या तो गोपाल है या प

Neither….nor

Neither i can dance nor i can sing. ना तो मैं नाच सकता हूं और न ही मैं गा सकता हूं।

Not only but also

Ram is not only intelligent but also humble man. राम केवल बुद्धिमान नहीं बल्कि नम्र व्यक्ति भी है।

No Sooner

Example:  No sooner had the police come than the thief ran away from there. जैसे ही पुलिस आई चोर से वहां से भाग गया।

Rather Than

I would rather watch news than a movie. मैं फिल्म देखने के बजाय समाचार देखूँगा।

♦Important Rules

  • Lest (कही ऐसा न हो , ऐसा न हो की ), नहीं  तो

Lest में NOT का use नहीं करते हैं because lest  खुद negative word हैं

Lest में “should” का use करते हैं

Lest – Not (x)

Lest- Should (✓)

Example: Work hard lest you should fail.

  • Until (जब तक नहीं) (Time बताता हैं )

After Until: Not (x) (Until से start होने वाले sentence में not use नहीं करते)

After Until: Will/ Shall use नहीं करते but before करते

After Until: use Present indefinite tense

Example: You can wat at the platform until the train arrives.

  • Unless (अगर नहीं) (Conditional)

After unless: Not (x) (Unless से start होने वाले sentence में not use नहीं करते)

After unless: Will/ Shall use नहीं करते but before करते

After unless: Use Present indefinite tense

Example: Unless he works hard, he cannot success in the life.

  • Hardly/Scarcely

Hardly/ Scarcely में second Subject से पहले ‘When’ use होता हैं

Hardly/ Scarcely में Helping Verb “Did/ had: use होता हैं

Hardly/ Scarcely + Did (v1)/Had (v3)

Example: He hardly left his seat when it was acquired by someone.

  • No Sooner

No Sooner में second Subject से पहले ‘Than’ use होता हैं

No sooner में Helping Verb “Did/ had: use होता हैं

No Sooner + Did (v1)/Had (v3)

  • As………… As

To compare two thing/person

Always use: As + Positive Degree + As

Never use : As + Com. Degree/ superlative degree  + as

Can be use– positive (+ve) + negative (-ve)

Example: She is as tall as her sister.

  • So………….as

To compare two thing/Person

Always use: So + Positive Degree + As

Never use : So + Com. Degree/ superlative degree  + as

Can be use: Only “Negative” (-ve)

Example: The earth is not so big as the sun.

Note: As soon as, As long as, So long as के बाद than/ then  का  use  नहीं किया जाता हैं

  • Both (दोनों)

Both: Noun + and + noun

Both: Preposition + Both

Note: Both के बाद हमेशा “and” होता हैं किन्तु problem “as well as”, or, else के साथ दिया जाता हैं

Example: Both Ram and Mohan may come today.

  • Not only………..But also

Second subject पर verb depend होता हैं

Example: Not only Abhinav but also her friends are going on a picnic.

Parallel the sentence

But also के बाद अगर noun/verb/V1,ing/preposition होतो  “not only” के बाद same वही होगा

Example: In his life, he not only wants (v)money but also fame (noun). (x)

In his life he wants not only money (noun) but also fame (noun) ()

  • Though/ Although (यद्यपिहालांकि)

Use: yet/, (comma)

Never Use: But, or, else, and

Never use: Yet and still not use together  (Still always affirmative sentence and yet use negative sentence)

Note: वैसे लिखने में “Yet” को हटा भी दिए जाता हैं इसके place पर comma  एक दे दिए जाता हैं

Example: Though my car is very old yet it still runs vary fast. (x)

Though my car is very oldit still run very fast ()

  • Whether………or

Always use: Or

Note: Or के बदले That or if का use कर problem दिए जाते हैं

Whether के बदले That or if का use कर problem दिए जाते हैं

Example: I don’t know that he will come or not. (x)

I don’t know whether he will come or not()

  • Seldom if or Seldom or

Seldom of always use: Or

Seldom or always use: Never

Example: Seldom or never have I hurt you.

  • Rather and Other

Always use: Than

I have no other object but to get a job. (x)

I have no other object than to get a job. ()

  • Who/whom/ which/ whose/ what

Before All Interrogative words not use That/ As to.

Example: He asked me that who he was. (x)

  • Else

After Else use “But”

Example: It is nothing else but vanity.

Quiz Based on Conjunctions

Q1. The teacher is neither(1) free or interested in(2) teaching the students(3).

(a)Part 1 is incorrect

(b)Part 2 is incorrect

(c)Part 3 is incorrect

(d)No error

Q.2. No sooner does the principal(1) enter the class(2) then the students stand up(3).

(a)Part 1 is incorrect

(b)Part 2 is incorrect

(c)Part 3 is incorrect

(d)No error

Q.3. She has a dog(1), a cat(2) who dislike each other(3)

(a)Part 1 is incorrect

(b)Part 2 is incorrect

(c)Part 3 is incorrect

(d)No Error

Q.4. Read to contradict(1) or to believe(2) and not to weigh or consider(3)

(a)Part 1 is incorrect

(b)Part 2 is incorrect

(c)Part 3 is incorrect

(d)No Error

Q.5. Ram lost not only(1) his wallet(2), but also his watch(3).

(a)Part 1 is incorrect

(b)Part 2 is incorrect

(c)Part 3 is incorrect

(d)No Error

Answer

1.Answer (2) the conjunction neither is always followed by nor.

2.Answer (3) The conjunction pair of No Sooner is Than.

3.Answer (2) Coordinating conjunction (and) is missing.

4.Answer (1) correlative conjunction (either) is missing.

5.Answer (4) No error

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